Asihatu Granite Stone Pinacles Park
Publish Time：2014-01-20 Author：ftwljsb Click：513
1. Introduction of the park
Asihatu is Mongolian, which means “arduous rock”. Geographic coordinate of Asihatu Stone Pinacles Park is N43°59″--44°02′, and E117°33′一117°37′. Asihatu Stone Pinacles is distributed on the North Mountain which is about 30 miles in the north of Huanggang Mount, the highest peak of Great Xing’an Mountains, and its altitude is about 1700. The stone pinacles extends from north to east along the ridge and its area is about 5 square miles. Shape of the stone pinnacles is similar to that of Lunan Stone Pinacles of Yunnan, Yuanmou Clay Forest, Yadan Landform of Xinjiang, and the ice forest of modern glacier. It is proved by researches of many related experts: Asihatu Stone Pinacles is a new type of combination of granite landform with stone pinacles landform, and it belongs to granite stone pinnacles and is a unique odd landform landscape in the world at present. It is believed by experts that many times of glacier effect happened in Great Xing’an Mountains since the glacial period of the Quaternary Period. After the North Mountain is eroded by glacier, arête and horns developed and distributed in rows or separately on the ridge, and current landform was formed after the erosion by glacier, freezing, weathering, and water. Such stone pinacles is very typical and rate in the world.
The rocks constitute the stone pinacles are monzonitic granite--K-feldspar granite series, which is usually called rock of the North Mountain. They were formed by invasion and cooling of magma inside the earth during late Jurassic and it has been 0.18 to 0.15 billion years by now. Joint of third group of the granite is developed, and development of the horizontal joint is rare in the world. For about 8 million years, the granite stone pinacles is formed, which was along the arête or back edge of the cirque and of spectacular vigor and various shapes, under joint action of external forces such as joint fissure, structure uplifting, physical and chemical weathering, especially the action of mountain glacier of the quaternary Period. Granite stone pinacles is the only new landform type in the world and is named as “Stone Pinacles of Inner Mongolia” due to its special causes of formation and characteristics.
2. Geological causes
Landform of the granite stone pinacles of the North Mountain has two major characteristics. Firstly is the stratified characteristic of granite, such characteristic determines that the granite stone pinacles of the North Mountain is unique in the world; and secondly is the distribution characteristics of Granite. Such granite stone pinacles is mainly distributed on the ridge of the North Mountain, which determines appearance characteristics of the granite stone pinacles. The two characteristics of stratified and distribution make the granite stone pinacles of the North Mountain outstanding in the world geology.
Development process of granite stone pinacles is closely related to the landform evolution of this region, and current granite stone pinacles is formed under long-term wind erosion, frost cracking, chemical and physical weathering and gravity action.
The intensive structural extrusion suffered by the granite stone pinnacles of the North Mountain during the mountain building activity brought development to the three groups of primitive joint inside the granite.
During the Quaternary Period, valleys and glaciers developed extensively in the North Mountain area. Glaciers shaved and eroded the granite, and thus restructured the original landform. After the glacier faded away, ancient cirque, ice-eroded depression, arête and horns were formed on the original land and were distributed in row or separately on the ridge of the North Mountain, and thus to form the mold of granite stone pinacles. Since latitude of this area is high, the weather is cold, and diurnal amplitude is huge, expansion rates of quartz and feldspar inside the granite are different. Under the action of superficial physical weathering and frost cracking, the well-developed joint plane expanded the fissure between the surface and bed. Under the action of gravity, the granite was decomposed and collapsed along the joint plane and formed single stone wall and columns with clear edges, which formed preliminary shape of the granite stone pinacles.
This area is located at the wester belt. The west belongs to the ancient Hunshandake Sand, and the east belongs to Ke’erqin Sand. Days with winds of larger than gale are about 60 days, and therefore, the granite stone pinacles suffered strong wind erosion during the process of formation. The feldspar with clear edges became round and smooth under long-term of strong wind erosion, and thus surface of the stone pinacles is round, and a stone pinacles of various shapes is therefore formed. Since the wind erosion of the windward side is more serious than the leeward side, the stone pinacles has the characteristics of concavo-convex.
Being seen from distance, the granite stone pinacles looks line a castle built by ancient people, uprising from the ground, outstanding, arduous, of long history and ruined. While being seen closely, the stone pinacles is of various gestures, looks like tower, column, bamboo shoot, people, and beast, and it seems that it may come to you when you call it and it may move when you drive it as if they are engraved by people, which makes us marvel at the superlative craftsmanship of nature. Relative height of the stone pinacles is from 5m to 20m, and bottoms of the stones are connected in the shape of square or strip. Some landscapes which are similar in form win high praise: the Square Tower, with clear shape and standing uprightly; the stone wall, with flat and straight surface and uneven blocks; the stone lion, with clear face and body and watching the towering mountain vividly; and “Girl Watches the Moon” and “Leaning Tower of Pisa”, and so on, are more vivid and lively.
Standing on the peak of the stone pinacles and watching to the far, you will see mountain ranges, endless green vision, the primitive birch forest among the mountains are flourishing, roes and deer appear and then disappear, birds singing, wild flower on the grassland are blossoming, butterflies and bees flying, and in the cloudiness, the even and open steppe far away from the North Mountain is floating in the sea. And when you are attracted by the nature, a blow of tender wind passes by, accompanied by pieces of clouds which surrounds you, which makes you feel like in the heaven.
3. Major Scenes
Stone Wall (beating off)
Action of the glacier brings development of vertical joint and horizontal joint inside the granite, since the vertical joint is sparse and discontinuous, it’s weathered slowly, and the low and long stone wall is formed. The stone wall is 32m long, 2m wide and 6m high. Seen from far off, it looks a steamer beating off and sailing in the sea.
Stone table (genera’s bed)
The base left after collapse of the granite column. The horizontal joint plane is flat and is cut into rhombus by the two groups of vertical joints, which makes it look like a bed. It is about 4m long, 2-3m wide and 0.5 high.
Stone Wall (moon castle)
It is composed of the granite arête of ancient cirque, with developed vertical joint. After long-term weathering and gravity collapse, a stone wall with a broken top is formed. With the increasing of weathering time and strength, the vertical fissure will continue extending and expanding until the stone wall becomes many separate stone columns. The stone wall and the stone columns stand among each, fluctuating and in picturesque disorder. The total length is 110m. It looks like a moon, as well as a castle.
Since the granite column and wall on the slope are of poor stability, they collapse into cyclopean riprap after long-term weathering and spallation or under the action of external forces. The cyclopean riprap is the late state of development of stone pinacles and stone columns, therefore, the stone pinacles exits for a limited period and we shall cherish existing stone pinacles resources.
A rhombus granite column formed by being cut by two groups of vertical joints, with a diameter of about 3m and about 6m high. The angle between the joint and the slope is almost the same with the angle of slope, about 20°. The bottom, after being weather and collapsing, connects with the ground in a small part, which makes it look like a megalith flying from far off.
Regular Stone Wall (Book Mountain)
A columnar stone wall. Vertical joint in the rock mass is even, and a check-shaped stone wall is formed after being weathered. It is 90m long in total and about 10m high and look like a row of orderly placed books, and therefore, it is named the Book Mountain.
Stone Column Group (three sworn brothers)
It is composed of three neighboring granite columns. Surface of each column is round during serious weathering action. Diameter of a single column is 3-5m and about 10m high. They are standing side by side, looking like three sworn brothers.
Stone Pinacles and Stone Wall (seven fairies)
It is composed of granite stone pinacles and stone walls, but it is smaller, about 70m long and tiptop is about 18m. Due to long-term wind erosion, the seven stone columns on the top represent different shapes, which are graceful just like fairies dancing elegantly.
Wind Eroded Column (sister mount)
The horizontal joint at bottom of the granite is developed and since it is just slightly weathered, it becomes a stone wall. While the upper part is weathered and collapses along the vertical joint, two separate columns are formed, which are 13m and 14m high respectively. Long-term wind erosion shapes the two columns into round and graceful columns with uneven sizes, and they look like two close sisters depasturing on the grassland.
Stone Wall and Fissures (Stone pinacles maze)
It is composed of high stone walls, narrow and long fissures, and fantastic stone caverns. The stone walls are formed by weathering of the granite that develops in the vertical joint. After being weathering collapsing, the stone wall becomes narrow fissure (a gleam of sky) with the narrowest point of 80cm. At the bottom of the stone wall, stone caverns are formed due to weathering and collapsing caused by gravity. Diameter of the entrance is about 2m, diminishing gradually inside, and the exit is only 30cm. People can see each other on the two sides of the stone wall.
Special Granite (roc standing on grassland)
In the granite, horizontal joint and vertical joint develop unevenly. Rock on the top is more serious weathered than the bottom which inclines in the direction of the slope nearby the horizontal joint. The rock, after differential weathering, looks like a roc landing on the grassland. It is 29m long, 24m wide, with the head of about 20m high, and constitutes a graceful painting together with the grassland.
Stone Column Group (urban sight)
Four granite columns are formed by being cut by two groups of vertical joints. A single column is 3-4m long and 5m high. With the horizontal joint development and vertical joint loose, they line up in picturesque disorder like buildings in the city, but in fact, they are formed by being eroded by ancient glacier.