Qingshan Granite Mortars and Granite Landform Park
Publish Time：2014-01-20 Author：ftwljsb Click：793
1. Introduction of the park
Qingshan Park is about 25km from Jingpeng Town in the west, with a total area of about 9200 hectares. It is composed of Qingshan Granite Mortars Scenery and Guandongche Granite Peak Forest Scenery, with the highest altitude of 1574m, and it is the only world geopark with the theme of granite mortar landform and granite peak forest landform.
Qingshan Granite Mortars Scenery has several hundred of granite mortars with an area of about 1000㎡. Most of the mortars are of round and ellipse mousse and characterized in flat bottom and large stomach, and they can be called “spectacles of the world”. After the granite invaded in early the Cretaceous Period uplift and expose on ground surface, depressions get into shape starting weak part of the rock under long-term chemical weathering and physical weathering, such as wind erosion and frost thawing, and other geological actions, and then the depressions deepen and expand gradually and finally become mortars of different sizes.
The granite peak forest of Guandongche Scenery is formed from granite under long-term action of wind and gravity. The peak forest looks like goshawks and dragons, vivid, vigorous, and bringing limitless natural beauty to Qingshan Park. Glacier landforms such as cirque, ice-eroded depressions, and “U” shape valley, and horns, are also every typical.
2. Analysis of causes
Planarly, the granite mortars of Qingshan Mountain are generally ellipse, round, spoon-shaped and irregular semicircle, etc., and of mortar, jar, bowl, key, spoon, drum, plate, cup and bucket shapes. General mortars are small mouths, big stomachs, flat bottom, or kettle like with slight concave, which is one of the most typical characteristics. Its formation is closely related with such characteristic of granite, landform characteristic and natural environment of this region. Topography of the exposed granite is flat, and thus surface of the granite can store water. Since this region was under perglacial environment of frozen soil for many years, granite itself is easily weathered and with distinct crystal grains. Heat conduction of minerals of the granite differs a lot and minerals may suffer frost weathering more frequently, water and other objects are more permeable. Crystallization and migration inside the granite and fissure may happen easily. What’s more, this region belongs to temperate semiarid climate, which strengthens the chemical weathering and results in continuous crystallization and migration of the substances inside the granite. Feldspar is firstly weathered and generates small holes distributed on the surface of granite in net shape. Because diurnal amplitude of this region is great, annual temperature difference is also great. Since planes of the ridge and hilltops can receive sunshine, hydration and dehydration of the rock cycles. Under such condition, various physical weathering actions such as frost weathering, frost thawing, and ice-chopping are very fierce, which increase the strengthen of chemical weathering. Under the double actions of physical-chemical weathering, the holes originally formed expand and rocks between the holes separate and collapse. Finally, holes connect together and depressions of various sizes are formed. Where topography is smooth, these depressions can store water, and what’s more, sand brought by the wind erode and abrade the walls of mortars. Direction and speed of wind are changed by mortars, which results in eddy current of the wind field and strengthens the weathering-wind erosion of depressions. With the rate of weathering increasing, weathers substances at bottom of the depression are brought away by wind or water, surface of the rock is fresh and center of the depression is uncovered. As time goes by, the center deepens and expands, and mortars with large mouth and deep bottom are formed. These mortars can store water. Since bottoms of the mortars are covered by ice water, the weathering rate decreases. However, due to continuous erosion, surface of the mortar is fresh and weathering rate increases, and finally, mortars with big stomach are formed. Due to wind erosion and frost thawing, strips of traces are left on interior walls of mortars, namely the spiral vein on the wall of mortar. And thus, the common mortars of Qingshan Mountain are formed.
In Qingshan Park, it is not only the glacial pothole group that is well preserved but the vegetation surrounding also keeps original natural scenes. In early summer, the pink kiskatom flower, white flower of mountain ash berry, and flower of mountain bacataborkh scatter among the valleys and give out fragrant smell. Among the green trees, the 1999 steps extending towards the hilltop appear and disappear. Along the stone steps, you will see a chain of mountains, strange stones, and picturesque sight. The strange stones are of vivid shapes of people and articles. The cliff with a shape of snake on it rising from water, and the action of the snake seems to continue; the stone of monkey mother and son, with round forehead, concave cheek, and tine mouse, seems to be true to nature; the dangerous rock connects with the cliff by only a little, handing like an umbrella, and it seems to move with the wind, swing with the rain, and moves with the cloud, and people may tremble with fear while watching it. There are also the eagle stone, coffin stone, monk stone, track stone, beauty stone, Lianyin Village, stone shed, pigeon cave, and Lama Cave, etc. Standing on the top of Qingshan Mountain, wind, which sounds like the word of God surrounding you, blows gently. The sounds of nature are excellent light music which make you relaxed and happy. The mounts far off, being covered by light fog, look like waves. Xilamulun River, at the bottom of the mountain, looks like the strip of fairy and goes eastwards with silver waves. Looking down to the foot of the mountain, there are pieces of villages, strips of terraces, and rows of forest net. The order of personalized nature and connection of the nature become on integrated mass and bring out the best in each other.
Qingshan Granite Mortar is one of the historical witnesses of changes of ancient climate, ancient environment, ancient landform, and ancient people.
3. Major scenes
It is formed along the weak part of granite and expands gradually due to long-term physical and chemical actions such as wind erosion, rain, and ice thawing, etc. The surface is ellipse and direction of the long axis is the same with that of the horizontal joint of granite. Wall of the mortar is concave, and thus form a big stomach. The bottom is flat, and on which spiral erosion veins can be seen. Deposit of the late period covers the surface to stop weeds from growing.
Mortar of late period
In late period of development of the mortar, since there were fissures surrounding the mortar, and water flew out along the fissure, which deepened and widened the fissures gradually, and finally, shape of the mortar was damaged. As shown in the picture, fissure develops along the long axis of a pair of mortar in the shape of long ellipses, which leads to breakage of the mortar.
A kind of mortar formed in granite under physical and chemical weathering. Long-term weathering makes the downward erosion of the mortar become more and more serious, and thus to cut the rock through to connect with side and bottom of the rock, and the pass-through mortar is therefore formed. Diameter of such mortar is small, but generally deep. The small breadth depth ratio represents long time of downward erosion.
A kind of mortar formed in granite under physical and chemical weathering. Such kind of mortar usually has large diameter, low depth, flat bottom, concave interior wall, and large breadth depth ratio, which means that side erosion was the major action during formation of the mortar. The mortar is round with a diameter of about 4m. Mud deposits, containing small gravels, of about more than 10cm were formed at the bottom during the late period, and on the surface of deposits, weeds grow.
A kind of mortar formed in granite under physical and chemical weathering. Peristome of such mortar is irregular such as “L”, “S”, and “Y” shaped, which is the result of uneven side erosion during formation of the mortar, or connection of neighboring mortar, and damage in the late period.
Granite Peak Forest (Wufo Mountain)
Vertical joint and vertical fissure of the granite are developed and peak forest landform of various shapes are formed after these joint and fissure being weathered. Surface of the peak forest of various shapes and gestures was rounded by weathering, which makes it look like five Buddha statues of different expressions, and therefore, it is called Wufo Mountain.
Granite Hole (mirror for peeking the sky)
The three groups of joint in the granite are developed. Round stone hole is formed at middle and upper part of the stone wall due to weathering the wind erosion. The hole, with a diameter of about 2m, passes through the stone wall. Watch from far away, you can see the blue sky through the hole, and therefore, it is called “mirror for peeking the sky”.
Special Granite Stone (frog’s penalty)
Since the sub-horizontal joint in the granite and in the same direction with the ground slope and slope angle is developed, the rock has flat inclining surface after being weathered. Cutting of the vertical joint and fissure and long-term weathering result in various shapes of the granite. Being seen from short distance, it looks like a frog being pressed by a megalith. It is said that a frog disobeyed the rule of God and was punished to bear the rock.
Weather Granite Landform (watching the starring sky)
After long-term weathering, surface of the granites that are scattering massively is round. Uneven rock structure and differential weathering result in various gestures and shapes of the rocks. An old sits in front of the house, watching the peaceful and dark sky soulfully, and expects families coming home.
Granite Peak Forest (fight of kings)
The horizontal joint in the same direction of the ground slope and slope angle and the vertical joint cut the granite into several pieces. The long-term weathering long the two groups of joint has rounded surface of the granites, and thus to shape them into different forms. The sight here looks like leaders of the animals coming from all quarters for fighting.
Weather Granite Landform (stone of lying elephant)
Surface of the separate granite megalith standing on the top becomes round after long-term weathering and cracks exit on it. The shape of the stone looks like a lying elephant with eyes closed.
Weather Granite Landform (stone of two eagles)
The granite uprising from the ground represents various shapes after being weathered for a long time. Seen from far off, it looks two strong eagles sitting and watching a crowd and showing disdain for the sky.