Pingdingshan Glacier Relics Park
Publish Time：2014-01-20 Author：ftwljsb Click：528
1. Introduction of the park
Pingdingshan “Cirque” Group Park is located at southeast of Hexigten Banner and at Wanheyong Town on the south bank of Xilamulun River, 51 miles from Jingpeng Town, and its geographic coordinate is E117°56′, N43°07′. Topography of this region is high in southwest and low in northeast, and the lowest altitude is 709m and the highest is 1960m, with the average of 1370m. Among the mountains, there are hundreds of cirques of the Quaternary Period. These cirques are distributed among mountains and form large amount of arêtes and horns which, seen from far off, are in picturesque disorder with clear separations. The horns are towering, rows upon rows, and the arêtes are continuous and wavy with the force that can be matched with the Great Wall.
2. Analysis of causes
It is proved by Professor Tian Mingzhong, chief engineer of Geopark (Geological Relicc) Survey Research Center of China University of Geosciences, and Professor Wu Fadong, assistant dean of Beijing Geology College of China University of Geosciences, that the cirque group of Wanheyong Pingdingshan region is a large cirque group which is of the most quantity, most developed, the most complete periods, and best preserved. Cirques of different periods are preliminarily divided into five periods and distributed in mountains of 1300-1600m. Therefore, it can be deduced that Chifeng region was once covered ice at about 10 thousand to 3 million years ago, which was the so called glacial period.
Pingding "cirque” group is the glacial relics of the Quaternary Period. In the history of earth, there were three glacial periods that were close to now, and the glacial period of the Quaternary Period is the one that is most close, which happed about 2 million years ago. Glacier is the outcome of glacial period. With its powerful energy, glacier shapes the special glacial landform landscape. Mountain glacier landform has such types as horn, arête, and cirque, etc. Cirque means the depressions on upper part of the slope. Due to movement of glacier which takes the eroded cracked away from the depression, and thus the depressions deepen and the original shallow depression become the arm chair shape landform with three abrupt walls and one mouth.
Finding of these cirque groups provides extremely valuable materials for researched on the environment evolution of Inner Mongolia Plateau and also provides important basis for causes of Asihatu Stone Pinacles, as well we provides the most valuable base for geological scientific research of northern China.
Mountains of Pingdingshan “Cirque” Group Park are high and the valleys here are deep, and there are also ranges of mountains here. Along the twisted and wavy narrow path, passing fissure, climbing ridges, crossing horns, and entering bottom of the valley, there are glacial relics everywhere. The cirque and horns are of various shapes, contesting for strangeness and beauty, birds are flying, and the sounds of spring and birds never end. Since here is full of high mountains and deep valley, few people come here, and therefore the primitive vegetation is well preserved. Trees among the mountains are dense, and pine trees and cypresses compete for strangeness. In autumn, colors of red, orange, yellow, and green scatter everywhere; in winter, snow hangs on branches, glittering and transparent, which makes people incorporated into the nature and feel like going back the nature. Climb up to the mountain and watch the sky and ground far away, they connect together, and Xilamulun River comes from the horizon and goes way along the high mountains. There is also the Baicha Rock Painting on cliffs and pictures of deer, wild boar, courser, and shooter are vivid. Among the valleys, there are many relics of Liao, Yuan, and Qing dynasties. The several ruined steles and a clump of weeds activate our desire to exploit the relics of ancient civilization.
3. Major scenes
Typical glacial trough valley
Glacial trough valley is linear valley caused by valley glacier. When speed of the glacier is certain, downward erosion of the glacier is the most serious at lower part and bottom of the valley, which makes cross section of the glacial valley into different shapes, steep at the upper part and smooth at the lower part, and gradually become wide and open flat bottom. Turning point at upper border of the valley slope is the shoulder of glacial valley which represents the highest point of the glacier at that time. Glacial trough valley fluctuates and ice-eroded depression and ice-eroded rock bank staggers, which is the result of optional glacial erosion.
Cirque is the results of nivation and glacial erosion. The natural snow spots on the slope form nivation depressions and gradually become cirque glacier. On the one hand, the cirque is eroded by glacier, which makes back wall of the depression back off and heighten, and on the other hand, glacier inside the cirque slides down along the slope due to extrusion, and since the abrasion is fierce, the depth increase and ice bank is formed. Cirque is composed of three parts: steep back wall, deep bottom, and ice bank.
Cirque group develops on the snow line and is not controlled by lithology. During the development of two neighboring cirques or glacier valleys, walls of the cirque and frowns of the valley back off continuously, which makes the waterdivide become more and more narrow and finally become ridges like fish’s fin and back of a knife blade, and therefore, these ridges are called arête. The arête wanders on the peak and extends for several thousand meters.
During the development of cirque, walls of the cirque and valley back off continuously and two neighboring cirques become closer gradually and constitute sharp peaks which are called horns. Horns are conical with cirque traces on the sides: back wall of steep cirque and bottom of deep cirque.