Huanggangliang Glacier Relics Park
Publish Time：2014-01-20 Author：ftwljsb Click：713
1. Introduction of the park
Huanggangliang Quaternary Period Glacier Relics Park is located at northwest of inner Hexigten Banner and its geographic coordinate is E117°30′, N43°18′, with a total area of 109.33333 thousand hectares. Huanglianggang region preserves the most complete shape of the glaciers of Quaternary, whcih are of various types, and it is typical valley glacier. One both sides of Huanglianggang, there are such glacier relics as cirque, U-shaped valley, horn, terminal moraine levees, lateral moraine levees, streak stones, and boulders. It is the best preserved Quaternary glacier relics with the most complete glacier landform and the highest scientific research value. It’s of great importance for researches on the glacier activity, ecological environment, and ancient climate evolution of this region since the Quaternary Period.
Huanggangliang is the branch of Great Xing’an Mountains whose peak, Huanggang Peak, locates here with an altitude of 2029m. Topography of this region is mainly hills and altiplanation terrace, and outer mountains alternate with low and smooth hills and high plains. It is high in northwest and low in southeast, with an average altitude of about 1300m. The topography fluctuates, with ravines crossing and mixing with wide and open plains.
into the sky, plants are of various types, topography and landform are unique, animal and plant resources are extremely abundant. There are the famous Asihatu ice stone pinacles, 10 thousand mu of pine tree’s sea, natural birch at the stone peak, thousand mu of camphor at the wetland, and the twisting thirteen rivers inside this region… special landscapes and special ecology have special protection and research values. It was approved to be a national forest park by the National Forest Bureau. The park is composed of 27 mountains whose branches extend from the east to the west. The peaks and mountains are high and spectacular. It locates at the crossing zone of Mongolian, Northern China, and Northeast flora, therefore, biology here is of various species, representative and typical, and it is called the “gene store of diverse plant” and of high viewing and scientific research values. There are such natural landscapes such as natural forest, birch and wild poplar grove landscape, needle and broad-leaved mixed woodland and grassland, and mountain meadow. Here has flourishing grass, abundant forest, green mountains, and clean waters, and among the forest and grasses, there fore more than 40 kinds of famous flower and unusual grass. More than 50 kinds of valuable Chinese herbs scatter in the mountains, and therefore it is called the mountain of thousand of flower and hundred of medical herbs.
The forest is teemed with more than 20 kinds of wild vegetables, among which, wild brake, golden needle, and mushroom are the three treasures of vegetables. There are also many wild fruit growing in the mountains, and therefore it is called “mountain of fruit”. Since mountains here are high and forest is dense, there are more than 30 kinds of wild animals, such as roe, leopard, fox, and wild boar, etc. and more than 10 kinds of wild birds such as game cock and wild chicken. It is an ideal place for entertainment and hunting. It takes up 0.32 million hectares and is the largest international hunting ground of Asia at present and has been open up to tourists. For the Thirteen Rivers Scenery, one winding forms one scene and one scene generate one kind of emotion. The interest is activated naturally and strange scenes are full of humor and wit. In the 25th year of Kangxi’s reign, Emperor Kangxi called in the famous Zhaowudatala Meeting of Mongolian here. In summer, here is full of greenness; in summer, it is a sea of forest and tide of flower; in autumn, thousands of mountains are red; and in winter, everything is covered by white snow. It is a spectacular painting all over the year. Finding of the hot spring resource inside the park adds the sentiment of health care and entertainment for the park.
2. Major scenes
Terminal moraine levees
It is located at the west of Yuandanzi Mountain of Huanglianggang. The terminal moraine levees are distributed from northeast to southwest in dyke shape and of about 300m long. Due to water erosion during the late period and the middle part was damaged, a gap was formed. Moraines include megalith, gravels, and mixed deposits of various size ranges, without being selected and rounded. The terminal moraine levees are distributed vertically to the wide “U”-shaped valley and are deposits when ancient glaciers melted and excellent proof for activities of ancient glaciers.
Lateral moraine levees
It is located in the Daluquan trench. The lateral moraine levees are abut 3-4km, extends along direction of the valley, and are distributed nearby edge of the valley. Grain size of moraine differs greatly and the glaciers are complex in structure. Partial landform was damaged by geological erosion in the late period. Lateral moraine levees are the deposit formed on sides of the moving direction of glaciers when mountain glaciers melted.
During movement of the glacier, a group of ladder-like brittle fracture was formed on the surface of bedrock or surface glaciers bring gravels due to the great pressure above and the shear stress generated during the movement, and such facture is called glacial stages. The direction of stages from steep to smooth indicates moving direction of the glaciers.
Scoring marks are left on surface of the gravels during the gravels moved together with movement of the glaciers and rubbed and collided with each other or bedrock, such marks are called glacial stria. It locates on glacial stones or the smooth surface of gravels, with slim, long, and scrapes. The cross-section is nearly symmetric and extending direction of the scrapes is the same with moving direction of the glaciers. The direction of scrapes from deep to shallow also indicates moving direction of the glaciers.
When the mountain glaciers moved along the valley, glaciers and the articles brought by them eroded bottom and sides of the valley under the action of gravity, and cross section of the valley became “U” shape, therefore it is called “U"-shaped valley. The “U"-shaped valley of Huanggangliang is large in scale. Width of bottom of the valley is up to 50-300m and depth of the valley is up to 30-150m. Together with the lateral moraine levees and terminal moraine levees, it proves the existence of mountain glacier movement of the Quaternary Period.
Peak of Great Xing’an Mountains—Huanggang Peak
The famous Great Xing’an Mountains Mountains spans for thousands of miles and looks like a dragon perking up, and it’s low in the north and high in the south. Huanggang Peak is the peak of Great Xing’an Mountains, altitude of which is 2036m. The 27 mounts and peaks surrounding constitute main peak of Great Xing’an Mountains. The mountains are high, valleys are deep, forests are dense, rare and precious animals appear and disappear, which makes here mysterious, silent, grand and spectacular. Relative height difference of Huanggang Peak among the mountains is about 500m and the peak is composed of granites of the Mesozoic Era. Although the peak looks soaring, it is flat and wide on the top. Several peaks represent a fluctuating round landform within a circumference of several square kilometers. Looking from the peak, forest sea and pine tree waves are in your eyes and the high mountains are in a glance.
Sea of glacial stone
It is distributed at northeast side of Huanggang Peak in pieces, with an area of about 6000㎡and altitude about 1900m. The stone sea is composed of granite megaliths of various sizes and most of them have edges and corners. Surfaces of the megaliths have scrapes and stages, some of which are saddle like, with clear characteristics of glacial action. The stone sea distributed at different heights may represent the positions of snow lines of different periods.