Dalinuoer Volcano Landform Park
Publish Time：2014-01-20 Author：ftwljsb Click：718
1. Introduction of the park
Dalinuoer Lake locates at the west of Hexigten Banner and is about 90 miles from Jingpeng Town and next to the Xilingol Grassland Nature Reserves in the northwest. South of the lake is the east section of the Small Tengger Sand Land, and boundary of Xilingol League and Chifeng City is the boundary of the lake in the west. In1996, Dalinuoer Nature Reserve was promoted by the People’s Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to be an autonomous nature reserve. In December of 1997, it was promoted by the State Council to be a national nature reserve. Dalinuoer (Lake), which has been known as “The Pearl of Grassland” and “Swan Lake of China”, is the second largest inland lake of Inner Mongolia. It located at the junction of plain grassland and woodland grassland, with a total area of 240 square miles and a depth of 1-13m. The lake is deemed with crucian and leuciscus waleckii.
Dalinuoer Volcano Group is one of the nine volcano groups of noertheast of out country and locates at northwest of Dali Lake, with geographic coordinate of E 116°24′—116°50′, N43°15′——43°30′and a total area of 110 square kilometers. There are more than 10 craters which is different from eruptive vents. The craters are mostly conical and U-shaped ring mountains. The wide volcano lava tableland, volcanic cone, lava neck, and rich eruptive materials such as volcanic bomb and cinder honor Dalinuoer Volcano Group as “The Miniature Scenery of Wudalianchi Volcano”.
Dalinuoer Volcano Group Park has the peculiar Mantuo Mountain granite landform, Gonggeer Prairie of thousands of hectares’ grass, the far-flung Hunshandake Sand Land, Maolai River—the narrowest river in the world, the rock painting of Zhenzi Mountain, and the relics of the sinuous Great Wall of Jin dynasty. The park is integrated with natural scenes and geological relics and is a comprehensive geopark with volcanic landform as the main and integrated with lake, river, sand land, grassland, and woodland, as well as integrated with culture and rare migrants.
Above the basalt tableland and lacustrine plain in northwest of the park is a broad andlevel prairie where the most representative chestnut soil bunchgrasses steppe of Inner Mongolia Plateau. In the south of Small Tengger Sand Land is the most peculiar elm woodland steppe which is a special kind of steppe. Sand land vegetation and wetland vegetation are distributed in the wavy sand dune in southeast. Here, woodland, scrub, meadow, vegetation, and swamp vegetation are distributed in rings, and thus constitute the representative scenery of sand land steppe.
There are diverse ecological system and abundant rare species. From the perspective of scenic ecological system, a scenic ecological structure of basalt tableland-- lacustrine plain—lake basin lowland--aeolian sand land from the north to south successively, and the order distributed tableland plain and lacustrine plain vegetation—low wetland vegetation—sand land, woodland, and steppe vegetation provide diverse ecological environment for the rich species.
This area is an important path for migrants in the north of China, an important distributing center for migrants, and a comprehensive nature reserve to protect rare birds and the diverse ecological systems, such as lake, wetland, sand land, steppe, and forest that these birds live on. The special natural and geological conditions create the famous inland lake ecological system of Inner Mongolia Plateau. The lakes, rivers, swamps, and wet meadows distributed all over the region constitute an important ecological system which takes up 35.8% of total area of the region and plays a leading role in balancing the ecological system of this region.
It has been found that there are 16 orders, 32 families, and 152 species of birds in the park, among which, 8 species are first class national protected birds, 18 species are second class protected birds, and there are 21 species of fish, 72 species of phytoplankton, 36 species of zooplankton, more than 20 species of zoobenthos, and about 434 species of higher plants. When the lake is frozen, birds, with their wives and children, shot the surface of water and fleet through the reed from time to time, fly around the lake, and are unwilling to leave. In October and November of each year, more than 60 thousand white swans sing in Dali Lake like fairies, and their sounds can be heard all around and the scene is spectacular.
Dalinuoer (Lake) Volcano Group Park attracts many experts, scholars, and tourist loving nature to come for investigation, visiting and touring with its unique natural landscape and diverse species and impresses every visitor. The park is an important base for scientific research, as well as the best place for developing ecological tourism. Everywhere here is a scene and pictures. People can feel the endless charm of the nature here.
2. Major scenes
The crater was formed from the fissures of early Pleistocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period—central volcanic eruption. The crater is typical U-shaped and diameter of the mouth is 800m and that of the eruption vent is about 300m. Height of the volcanic cone is about 50m and it is composed of volcano clastic rock and lava. Abundant rope like structure and plastic and semi-plastic deformation structure of the lava can be seen.
The boiling lava vaporizes the liquid at bottom of the lava flow to generate large amount of gas and boast the lava to flow out, and tegular wall at the mouth is formed. such spraying and flowing happen for several times and heighten the wall which looks like horn, corolla, dish, and disc, etc. Compared with eruption cone, eruption disc is of less times of pausing eruption of liquid lava and lower walls. The eruption discs are mostly distributed separately, and diameter of the vent is generally 0.2-0.5m and that of the base is generally 1.5-2.5m and some can be up to about 5m, and the height is generally abut 1m.
Twilight of Dali Lake
Dali Lake--the brilliant pearl of the steppe, is completely a beautiful and graceful painting when it is under the shine of golden sunglow. The setting sun shines over the sky and color of the sky and water becomes the same.
The narrowest river in the world—Maolai River
Maolai River located at southwest of Dali Lake and it is a special river that connect Duolun Lake with Dali Lake. It is 17km long in total, with average depth of 50cm and average width of only more than 10cm. The narrowest place is only 6cm, where a book can be the bridge, and therefore, Maolai River is also called “Book Bridge River”. This river is sinuous and twisting and mostly in “几” shape. Seen from high, it looks like a silver strip flying over the green steppe.
With the rhythm of rolling waves of Dalinuoer Lake, go eastwards and we come to Ganggengnuoer Lake (which can be translated to the immortal lake in Chinese). Ganggengnuoer Lake has a total area of 17 square miles, with a depth of 1-5m, and altitude of surface of the lake is 1240m. The lake is deemed with carp, crucian, and leuciscus merzbacheri. A large patch of reed of more than 2m grow in southeast of Ganggengnuoer Lake, which can store water. The clear Tuoli River flows into the lake. At south bank of Ganggengnuoer Lake and north end of Hunshandake Sand Land, there are many springs which flow into the lake all over the year. At west of Ganggengnuoer Lake, it is the unnoticeable Dagennuoer from which a nameless creek flows into Ganggengnuoer Lake. Ganggengnuoer Lake is surrounded by red wickers, which looks like many low water towers storing water.
Ganggengnuoer Lake is beautiful for the broad and endless green grassland beside the lake, for the beautiful fishes jumping in the shimmering waves and the waves glittering. If it is sunny with peaceful wind and waves, you can see thousands of fishes jump up and the sound of beating the water can be heard continuously. Some carps of several jins or more than 10 jins jump out of the water and make you dizzy, and some of them may fall into the ship, it must be “the fish wants to dive the dragon gate and fails, but falls into the ship and becomes the food in the pan”. Under the setting sun, light of the morning sun or at the lake bank under rays of sunshine, or boating in the lake, or fishing, all the trivia of the world will go away with the waves and the sense of leisure and peace will come up.
From September to October of every year, it is the best time for watching birds and the lake. Far beyond the lake is the green grassland with sprinkling yellow flowers, large patches of reed of more than 1m high grow at the bank near the water. Various kinds of young birds start learning to walk. Come closer, you will see the red-crowned crane walking with red crown, leisure pace, and gentleman grace, with young “gentlemen” following.
Watching over the lake, thousands of migrants fly and sing above the lake. White swans, red-crowned cranes, and gray cranes circle above the lake like fairies with graceful gestures in the Dunhuang Frescos. This painting of bird, fish, and lake painted by nature attracts people to linger around.
Walk 16 miles westwards from Dalinuoer Lake, we come to Duolunnuoer Lake. The lake has a total area of 2.2 square miles, with many artesian springs inside. It has quality water and is famous for its carps. It is said that there was no carps in Duolunnuoer Lake once. Emperor Kangxi, after fishing in Dalinuoer Lake, came to Duolunnuoer Lake and found that there was no fish in such as large lake. He asked people to bring 10 carps from the Yellow River and put them into the lake. By now, people still call Duolunnuoer as the Lake of Carp. Progenies of the 10 carps brought here with cowskin bag multiply and become the endless fortune of the people here.