Hunshandake Sand Land Park
Publish Time：2014-01-21 Author：ftwljsb Click：702
1. Introduction of the park
Hunshandake Sand Land starts from Hexigten Banner of Inner Mongolia in the east and ends in Sunite Banner of Xilingol. It covers an area of 28 thousand square miles and is the nearest desert to Beijing. The sand land is composed of pale yellow sand and most are solidified-semi-solidified sand dunes. Most of the dunes are of ridge and chain shapes and only a small part of dunes are of new moon shape. They extend from northwest to southeast, with the height of 10-30m.
2. Cause of sand land
Formation of Aeolian sand of Hunshandake Sand Land traced back to the Pliocene Epoch. It was formed and evolved under the background of the whole world entering the Quaternary ice age in late Pliocene Epoch and uplifting of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Due to joint affect of climate fluctuation of the ice age and movement of new structure, the sand land had different formation mechanism in different geological periods. In the Neogene Period, the sand land was continuously controlled by the sub-tropical high, as well as affected by weak monsoon and transition of the monsoon, and red Aeolian sand and red paleosol sedimentation were formed. In Quaternary Period, the sand land was mainly controlled by East Asian monsoon and its transition, and grayish yellow, brownish yellow, and grayish white Aeolian sand and grayish black, brownish grey, brownish red paleosol sedimentation developed. The sand is yellow temperate monsoon desert.
The Holocene Series is composed of pale yellow sand and the scenes here are divided into broad leaved forest of solidified sand land, sand land aestatifruticeta, sand land gramineous scene, sand land subshrub sub-wormwood, and mobile dune or exposed sand. In sunny autumn days, the golden sand is decorated by colorful shrubs. They are many kinds of shrubs on the sand, elms, red willow, small subshrub, quality pastures and medical plants grow together. Wild animals are also of varieties, up to more than 60 kinds such as the common wolf, fox, badger, rabbit, gerbil, stoat, and lizard, etc.
Hunshandake locates at sand high plain with the altitude of 1300-1400m. Most of the sand is fixed or semi-fixed dunes, most of which are of ridge and chain shapes and only a small part of dunes are of new moon shape. They extend from northwest to southeast, with the height of 10-30m. Between the dunes, there are many pasture lands. The Holocene Series is composed of pale yellow sand. In south of Hunshandae Sand Land of Hexigten Banner, there are inland river, small lakes, and swamplands, and which are the major water conservation land of Dalinuoer Lake. Among the dunes of Hunshandake Sand Land, most plants are shrubs, such as elm, and herbs, which are the major vegetation for maintaining ecology of the sand land. Therefore, this area is called “Woodland Sand” or “Woodland Steppe”. In Daerhanwula Sumu of Hexigten Banner on the east edge of Hunshandake Sand Land, a large area of sand land woodland with elms as the main grows. In spring, elms among the dunes bear light green seeds which activate the deathlike sand land; in hot summer, branches and leaves of elms in various shapes make a shade for the endless desert; in deep autumn after frosting, orange leaves dye the sand land to form a beautiful scene; in snowy winter, elms become the warrior of preventing wind and fixing sand and they stand upright in the snow.
Inside the park, there is the Baoyin Aobao National Nature Reserve. Thirty-six thousand mu world rare trees-- koyama spruce grow here. Such tree is evergreen arbor and can endure cold and dry weather, as well as regulate climate, purify the air, prevent wind, fix sand, and protect the steppe. Koyama spruce does not only create the miracle of desert but also welcomed by people with its characteristics of being not afraid of the cold and tall and straight figure. Because such trees have lived for a long time and have strong capability of fixing the sand, they are called the “Emerald” and “Biological Living Fossil” of the desert.
In recent years, around the dunes nearby Hexigten Banner Xiangshui Power Plant of Hunshandake Sand Land, experts found a large scale of mixed forest of hackmatack and Chinese pine with an area of more than 30 thousand mu. Hackmatack and Chinese pine are sub-arbor and excellent plants for anti drought and fixing sand. They can live at fixed dunes as well as semi-fixed tunes. However, it is not easy to find virgin hackmatack and Chinese pine forests in large patches in north of our country. It has been confirmed that this is the most north mixed forest of hackmatack and Chinese pine with the largest area in our country.
3. Major scenes
Sands brought by wind accumulate and become wind depositions under certain conditions. When the sandstorm flow meets barriers in the lee side, eddy flow is caused and which consumes energy of the air flow to reduce speed of the wind. However, sands of both sides engulfed by the eddy flow deposit and become dunes. Hunshandake Sand Land is wavy dunes and vegetations on it are fasciculate and in cluster.
If the sandstorm flow meets barriers during its movement, it will settle down on the lee side and form irregular sand bodies which are called sand piles. Due to erosion by external force or other actions, the sand piles are forged into different shapes, such as sculptures. On the cross section, various large Aeolian beddings can be seen, which indicate the direction and force of the wind that forms the pile.
Deep and secret maze
Because sands are brought from the windward side to and settle at the leeward side, a cross-bedding in the same direction of the leeward side is formed at back of the dune which extends along the direction of wind and becomes a ridge that is semi-solidified dunes. Vegetations are scattered in dribs and drabs. The climbing marks, which constitute a beautiful artificially engraved and naturally formed painting, are clear.
Precious living fossil in the world-- Koyama spruce
Inside the Baiyin Aobao National Nature Reserve on the northeast edge of Hunshandake Sand Land, a patch of koyama spruce grows. According to the experts, this is the only patch of koyama spruce that has been reserved in the world. Koyama spruce has tower-shaped leaves, red trunks, green leaves, tall and upright, and is green all over the year. Average height of the tree is 12m and maximum height can be up to 22m. Its average diameter is 0.8m. It has strong anti-drought capability and a rare species of tree that has not yet been found in the same type of area in the world. It is honored as “Biological Gene Bank” and “Living Fossil”.